1. The purpose of this post

I would demo how to solve this error when using android studio:

org.gradle.internal.exceptions.LocationAwareException: Execution failed for task ':app:mergeDexProCnDebug'.
    at org.gradle.initialization.exception.DefaultExceptionAnalyser.transform(DefaultExceptionAnalyser.java:99)
    at org.gradle.initialization.exception.DefaultExceptionAnalyser.collectFailures(DefaultExceptionAnalyser.java:65)
    at org.gradle.initialization.exception.MultipleBuildFailuresExceptionAnalyser.transform(MultipleBuildFailuresExceptionAnalyser.java:39)
    at org.gradle.initialization.exception.StackTraceSanitizingExceptionAnalyser.transform(StackTraceSanitizingExceptionAnalyser.java:29)
    at org.gradle.initialization.DefaultGradleLauncher.finishBuild(DefaultGradleLauncher.java:174)
    at org.gradle.initialization.DefaultGradleLauncher.doBuildStages(DefaultGradleLauncher.java:165)
    at org.gradle.initialization.DefaultGradleLauncher.executeTasks(DefaultGradleLauncher.java:134)
    at org.gradle.internal.invocation.GradleBuildController$1.execute(GradleBuildController.java:58)
    at org.gradle.internal.invocation.GradleBuildController$1.execute(GradleBuildController.java:55)
    at org.gradle.internal.invocation.GradleBuildController$3.create(GradleBuildController.java:82)
    at org.gradle.internal.invocation.GradleBuildController$3.create(GradleBuildController.java:75)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.DefaultWorkerLeaseService.withLocks(DefaultWorkerLeaseService.java:183)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.StopShieldingWorkerLeaseService.withLocks(StopShieldingWorkerLeaseService.java:40)
    at org.gradle.internal.invocation.GradleBuildController.doBuild(GradleBuildController.java:75)
    at org.gradle.internal.invocation.GradleBuildController.run(GradleBuildController.java:55)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.runner.ClientProvidedBuildActionRunner.run(ClientProvidedBuildActionRunner.java:55)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.ChainingBuildActionRunner.run(ChainingBuildActionRunner.java:35)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.ChainingBuildActionRunner.run(ChainingBuildActionRunner.java:35)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.BuildOutcomeReportingBuildActionRunner.run(BuildOutcomeReportingBuildActionRunner.java:58)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.ValidatingBuildActionRunner.run(ValidatingBuildActionRunner.java:32)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.BuildCompletionNotifyingBuildActionRunner.run(BuildCompletionNotifyingBuildActionRunner.java:39)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.RunAsBuildOperationBuildActionRunner$3.call(RunAsBuildOperationBuildActionRunner.java:51)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.RunAsBuildOperationBuildActionRunner$3.call(RunAsBuildOperationBuildActionRunner.java:45)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:416)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:406)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$1.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:165)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:250)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:158)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.call(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:102)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DelegatingBuildOperationExecutor.call(DelegatingBuildOperationExecutor.java:36)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.RunAsBuildOperationBuildActionRunner.run(RunAsBuildOperationBuildActionRunner.java:45)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.InProcessBuildActionExecuter$1.transform(InProcessBuildActionExecuter.java:49)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.InProcessBuildActionExecuter$1.transform(InProcessBuildActionExecuter.java:46)
    at org.gradle.composite.internal.DefaultRootBuildState.run(DefaultRootBuildState.java:78)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.InProcessBuildActionExecuter.execute(InProcessBuildActionExecuter.java:46)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.InProcessBuildActionExecuter.execute(InProcessBuildActionExecuter.java:31)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.BuildTreeScopeBuildActionExecuter.execute(BuildTreeScopeBuildActionExecuter.java:42)
    at org.gradle.launcher.exec.BuildTreeScopeBuildActionExecuter.execute(BuildTreeScopeBuildActionExecuter.java:28)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.ContinuousBuildActionExecuter.execute(ContinuousBuildActionExecuter.java:78)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.ContinuousBuildActionExecuter.execute(ContinuousBuildActionExecuter.java:52)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.SubscribableBuildActionExecuter.execute(SubscribableBuildActionExecuter.java:59)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.SubscribableBuildActionExecuter.execute(SubscribableBuildActionExecuter.java:36)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.SessionScopeBuildActionExecuter.execute(SessionScopeBuildActionExecuter.java:68)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.SessionScopeBuildActionExecuter.execute(SessionScopeBuildActionExecuter.java:38)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.GradleThreadBuildActionExecuter.execute(GradleThreadBuildActionExecuter.java:37)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.GradleThreadBuildActionExecuter.execute(GradleThreadBuildActionExecuter.java:26)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.ParallelismConfigurationBuildActionExecuter.execute(ParallelismConfigurationBuildActionExecuter.java:43)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.ParallelismConfigurationBuildActionExecuter.execute(ParallelismConfigurationBuildActionExecuter.java:29)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.StartParamsValidatingActionExecuter.execute(StartParamsValidatingActionExecuter.java:60)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.StartParamsValidatingActionExecuter.execute(StartParamsValidatingActionExecuter.java:32)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.SessionFailureReportingActionExecuter.execute(SessionFailureReportingActionExecuter.java:55)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.SessionFailureReportingActionExecuter.execute(SessionFailureReportingActionExecuter.java:41)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.SetupLoggingActionExecuter.execute(SetupLoggingActionExecuter.java:48)
    at org.gradle.tooling.internal.provider.SetupLoggingActionExecuter.execute(SetupLoggingActionExecuter.java:32)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.ExecuteBuild.doBuild(ExecuteBuild.java:67)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.BuildCommandOnly.execute(BuildCommandOnly.java:36)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.api.DaemonCommandExecution.proceed(DaemonCommandExecution.java:104)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.WatchForDisconnection.execute(WatchForDisconnection.java:37)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.api.DaemonCommandExecution.proceed(DaemonCommandExecution.java:104)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.ResetDeprecationLogger.execute(ResetDeprecationLogger.java:26)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.api.DaemonCommandExecution.proceed(DaemonCommandExecution.java:104)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.RequestStopIfSingleUsedDaemon.execute(RequestStopIfSingleUsedDaemon.java:34)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.api.DaemonCommandExecution.proceed(DaemonCommandExecution.java:104)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.ForwardClientInput$2.call(ForwardClientInput.java:74)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.ForwardClientInput$2.call(ForwardClientInput.java:72)
    at org.gradle.util.Swapper.swap(Swapper.java:38)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.ForwardClientInput.execute(ForwardClientInput.java:72)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.api.DaemonCommandExecution.proceed(DaemonCommandExecution.java:104)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.LogAndCheckHealth.execute(LogAndCheckHealth.java:55)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.api.DaemonCommandExecution.proceed(DaemonCommandExecution.java:104)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.LogToClient.doBuild(LogToClient.java:62)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.BuildCommandOnly.execute(BuildCommandOnly.java:36)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.api.DaemonCommandExecution.proceed(DaemonCommandExecution.java:104)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.EstablishBuildEnvironment.doBuild(EstablishBuildEnvironment.java:81)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.BuildCommandOnly.execute(BuildCommandOnly.java:36)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.api.DaemonCommandExecution.proceed(DaemonCommandExecution.java:104)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.exec.StartBuildOrRespondWithBusy$1.run(StartBuildOrRespondWithBusy.java:50)
    at org.gradle.launcher.daemon.server.DaemonStateCoordinator$1.run(DaemonStateCoordinator.java:295)
    at org.gradle.internal.concurrent.ExecutorPolicy$CatchAndRecordFailures.onExecute(ExecutorPolicy.java:63)
    at org.gradle.internal.concurrent.ManagedExecutorImpl$1.run(ManagedExecutorImpl.java:46)
    at org.gradle.internal.concurrent.ThreadFactoryImpl$ManagedThreadRunnable.run(ThreadFactoryImpl.java:55)
Caused by: org.gradle.api.tasks.TaskExecutionException: Execution failed for task ':app:mergeDexProCnDebug'.
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter$3.accept(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:151)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter$3.accept(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:148)
    at org.gradle.internal.Try$Failure.ifSuccessfulOrElse(Try.java:191)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.execute(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:141)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ResolveBeforeExecutionStateTaskExecuter.execute(ResolveBeforeExecutionStateTaskExecuter.java:75)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ValidatingTaskExecuter.execute(ValidatingTaskExecuter.java:62)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.SkipEmptySourceFilesTaskExecuter.execute(SkipEmptySourceFilesTaskExecuter.java:108)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ResolveBeforeExecutionOutputsTaskExecuter.execute(ResolveBeforeExecutionOutputsTaskExecuter.java:67)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ResolveAfterPreviousExecutionStateTaskExecuter.execute(ResolveAfterPreviousExecutionStateTaskExecuter.java:46)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.CleanupStaleOutputsExecuter.execute(CleanupStaleOutputsExecuter.java:94)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.FinalizePropertiesTaskExecuter.execute(FinalizePropertiesTaskExecuter.java:46)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ResolveTaskExecutionModeExecuter.execute(ResolveTaskExecutionModeExecuter.java:95)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.SkipTaskWithNoActionsExecuter.execute(SkipTaskWithNoActionsExecuter.java:57)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.SkipOnlyIfTaskExecuter.execute(SkipOnlyIfTaskExecuter.java:56)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.CatchExceptionTaskExecuter.execute(CatchExceptionTaskExecuter.java:36)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter$1.executeTask(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:73)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter$1.call(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:52)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter$1.call(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:49)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:416)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:406)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$1.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:165)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:250)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:158)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.call(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:102)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DelegatingBuildOperationExecutor.call(DelegatingBuildOperationExecutor.java:36)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter.execute(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:49)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.LocalTaskNodeExecutor.execute(LocalTaskNodeExecutor.java:43)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$InvokeNodeExecutorsAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:355)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$InvokeNodeExecutorsAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:343)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$BuildOperationAwareExecutionAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:336)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$BuildOperationAwareExecutionAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:322)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker$1.execute(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:134)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker$1.execute(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:129)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.execute(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:202)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.executeNextNode(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:193)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.run(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:129)
    ... 3 more
Caused by: org.gradle.workers.internal.DefaultWorkerExecutor$WorkExecutionException: A failure occurred while executing com.android.build.gradle.internal.tasks.Workers$ActionFacade
    at org.gradle.workers.internal.DefaultWorkerExecutor$WorkerExecution.waitForCompletion(DefaultWorkerExecutor.java:285)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.DefaultAsyncWorkTracker.waitForItemsAndGatherFailures(DefaultAsyncWorkTracker.java:115)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.DefaultAsyncWorkTracker.access$000(DefaultAsyncWorkTracker.java:34)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.DefaultAsyncWorkTracker$2.run(DefaultAsyncWorkTracker.java:83)
    at org.gradle.internal.Factories$1.create(Factories.java:25)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.DefaultWorkerLeaseService.withoutLocks(DefaultWorkerLeaseService.java:254)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.DefaultWorkerLeaseService.withoutProjectLock(DefaultWorkerLeaseService.java:165)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.DefaultWorkerLeaseService.withoutProjectLock(DefaultWorkerLeaseService.java:159)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.StopShieldingWorkerLeaseService.withoutProjectLock(StopShieldingWorkerLeaseService.java:90)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.DefaultAsyncWorkTracker.waitForCompletion(DefaultAsyncWorkTracker.java:79)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter$5.run(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:412)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$RunnableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:402)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$RunnableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:394)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$1.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:165)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:250)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:158)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.run(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:92)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DelegatingBuildOperationExecutor.run(DelegatingBuildOperationExecutor.java:31)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.executeAction(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:393)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.executeActions(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:376)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.access$200(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:80)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter$TaskExecution.execute(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:213)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ExecuteStep.lambda$execute$1(ExecuteStep.java:33)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ExecuteStep.execute(ExecuteStep.java:33)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ExecuteStep.execute(ExecuteStep.java:26)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CleanupOutputsStep.execute(CleanupOutputsStep.java:58)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CleanupOutputsStep.execute(CleanupOutputsStep.java:35)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveInputChangesStep.execute(ResolveInputChangesStep.java:48)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveInputChangesStep.execute(ResolveInputChangesStep.java:33)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CancelExecutionStep.execute(CancelExecutionStep.java:39)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.TimeoutStep.executeWithoutTimeout(TimeoutStep.java:73)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.TimeoutStep.execute(TimeoutStep.java:54)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CatchExceptionStep.execute(CatchExceptionStep.java:35)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CreateOutputsStep.execute(CreateOutputsStep.java:51)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SnapshotOutputsStep.execute(SnapshotOutputsStep.java:45)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SnapshotOutputsStep.execute(SnapshotOutputsStep.java:31)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CacheStep.executeWithoutCache(CacheStep.java:201)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CacheStep.execute(CacheStep.java:70)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CacheStep.execute(CacheStep.java:45)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.BroadcastChangingOutputsStep.execute(BroadcastChangingOutputsStep.java:49)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.StoreSnapshotsStep.execute(StoreSnapshotsStep.java:43)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.StoreSnapshotsStep.execute(StoreSnapshotsStep.java:32)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.RecordOutputsStep.execute(RecordOutputsStep.java:38)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.RecordOutputsStep.execute(RecordOutputsStep.java:24)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipUpToDateStep.executeBecause(SkipUpToDateStep.java:96)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipUpToDateStep.lambda$execute$0(SkipUpToDateStep.java:89)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipUpToDateStep.execute(SkipUpToDateStep.java:54)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipUpToDateStep.execute(SkipUpToDateStep.java:38)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveChangesStep.execute(ResolveChangesStep.java:77)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveChangesStep.execute(ResolveChangesStep.java:37)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.legacy.MarkSnapshottingInputsFinishedStep.execute(MarkSnapshottingInputsFinishedStep.java:36)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.legacy.MarkSnapshottingInputsFinishedStep.execute(MarkSnapshottingInputsFinishedStep.java:26)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveCachingStateStep.execute(ResolveCachingStateStep.java:90)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveCachingStateStep.execute(ResolveCachingStateStep.java:48)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.impl.DefaultWorkExecutor.execute(DefaultWorkExecutor.java:33)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.execute(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:120)
    ... 35 more
Caused by: com.android.build.api.transform.TransformException: com.android.builder.dexing.DexArchiveMergerException: Error while merging dex archives: 
The number of method references in a .dex file cannot exceed 64K.
Learn how to resolve this issue at https://developer.android.com/tools/building/multidex.html
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.tasks.DexMergingTaskRunnable.run(DexMergingTask.kt:471)
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.tasks.Workers$ActionFacade.run(Workers.kt:335)
    at org.gradle.workers.internal.DefaultWorkerServer.execute(DefaultWorkerServer.java:39)
    at org.gradle.workers.internal.NoIsolationWorkerFactory$1$1.execute(NoIsolationWorkerFactory.java:61)
    at org.gradle.workers.internal.AbstractWorker$1.call(AbstractWorker.java:44)
    at org.gradle.workers.internal.AbstractWorker$1.call(AbstractWorker.java:41)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:416)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:406)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$1.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:165)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:250)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:158)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.call(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:102)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DelegatingBuildOperationExecutor.call(DelegatingBuildOperationExecutor.java:36)
    at org.gradle.workers.internal.AbstractWorker.executeWrappedInBuildOperation(AbstractWorker.java:41)
    at org.gradle.workers.internal.NoIsolationWorkerFactory$1.execute(NoIsolationWorkerFactory.java:55)
    at org.gradle.workers.internal.DefaultWorkerExecutor$1.call(DefaultWorkerExecutor.java:105)
    at org.gradle.workers.internal.DefaultWorkerExecutor$1.call(DefaultWorkerExecutor.java:99)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.DefaultConditionalExecutionQueue$ExecutionRunner.runExecution(DefaultConditionalExecutionQueue.java:215)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.DefaultConditionalExecutionQueue$ExecutionRunner.runBatch(DefaultConditionalExecutionQueue.java:164)
    at org.gradle.internal.work.DefaultConditionalExecutionQueue$ExecutionRunner.run(DefaultConditionalExecutionQueue.java:131)
    ... 3 more
Caused by: com.android.builder.dexing.DexArchiveMergerException: Error while merging dex archives: 
The number of method references in a .dex file cannot exceed 64K.
Learn how to resolve this issue at https://developer.android.com/tools/building/multidex.html
    at com.android.builder.dexing.D8DexArchiveMerger.getExceptionToRethrow(D8DexArchiveMerger.java:131)
    at com.android.builder.dexing.D8DexArchiveMerger.mergeDexArchives(D8DexArchiveMerger.java:118)
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.transforms.DexMergerTransformCallable.call(DexMergerTransformCallable.java:102)
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.tasks.DexMergingTaskRunnable.run(DexMergingTask.kt:444)
    ... 22 more
Caused by: com.android.tools.r8.CompilationFailedException: Compilation failed to complete
    at com.android.tools.r8.utils.t.a(:55)
    at com.android.tools.r8.D8.run(:11)
    at com.android.builder.dexing.D8DexArchiveMerger.mergeDexArchives(D8DexArchiveMerger.java:116)
    ... 24 more
Caused by: com.android.tools.r8.utils.AbortException: Error: null, Cannot fit requested classes in a single dex file (# methods: 72833 > 65536)
    at com.android.tools.r8.utils.Reporter.a(:21)
    at com.android.tools.r8.utils.Reporter.a(:7)
    at com.android.tools.r8.dex.VirtualFile.a(:33)
    at com.android.tools.r8.dex.VirtualFile$h.a(:5)
    at com.android.tools.r8.dex.ApplicationWriter.a(:13)
    at com.android.tools.r8.dex.ApplicationWriter.write(:35)
    at com.android.tools.r8.D8.d(:44)
    at com.android.tools.r8.D8.b(:1)
    at com.android.tools.r8.utils.t.a(:23)
    ... 26 more

2. Environments

  • Android Studio 3.5
  • gradle wrapper version:
    • distributionUrl=https://services.gradle.org/distributions/gradle-5.4.1-all.zip
  • project build.gradle
    • classpath ‘com.android.tools.build:gradle:3.5.0’
  • project’s gradle.properties
    • android.useAndroidX=true
    • android.enableJetifier=true
    • android.enableR8=true

3. Solution and Code

3.1 the document

According to the android official document on multidex support,

  • Multidex support prior to Android 5.0

    Versions of the platform prior to Android 5.0 (API level 21) use the Dalvik runtime for executing app code. By default, Dalvik limits apps to a single classes.dex bytecode file per APK. In order to get around this limitation, you can add the multidex support library to your project:

dependencies { def multidex_version = “2.0.1” implementation ‘androidx.multidex:multidex:$multidex_version’ }

If you aren’t using AndroidX, add the following support library dependency instead:

dependencies { implementation ‘com.android.support:multidex:1.0.3’ }

This library becomes part of the primary DEX file of your app and then manages access to the additional DEX files and the code they contain. More details are below in the section about how to configure your app for multidex.

  • Multidex support for Android 5.0 and higher

    Android 5.0 (API level 21) and higher uses a runtime called ART which natively supports loading multiple DEX files from APK files. ART performs pre-compilation at app install time which scans for classesN.dex files and compiles them into a single .oat file for execution by the Android device. Therefore, if your minSdkVersion is 21 or higher multidex is enabled by default, and you do not need the multidex support library.

So ,my solution is:

3.2 my solution

    1. add multiDexEnabled property to your module’s build.gradle
android {
    compileSdkVersion 29

    defaultConfig {
        ...
        multiDexEnabled true
    }
}
    1. add dependency to your module’s build.gradle
dependencies {
    def multidex_version = "2.0.1"
    implementation "androidx.multidex:multidex:$multidex_version"
}
    1. Clean,rebuild and run the app Everything works!